Saturday, March 05, 2005
Key Biscayne - Underground Railroad Stop
By Margo Harakas
Posted February 22 2005
When asked by a couple of locals where she was from, she replied, "Cape Florida." It was where she and her family had set sail.
"The same, m'on," they replied in unison. "The same."
"They told their fragmented histories," she recalls, "but at that time I knew nothing about this heroic journey from slavery to freedom."
Today, more than 40 years later, the connection between those Andros islanders and the stretch of beach off the southern tip of Key Biscayne will be commemorated when Bill Baggs Cape Florida State Park is officially designated a National Underground Railroad Network to Freedom site. The only other designated Florida site is Fort Jefferson in the Dry Tortugas, 68 miles west of Key West.
Blank, a Key Biscayne resident and author who co-wrote the site application, learned of the historic slave-era significance of Cape Florida while researching her book Key Biscayne: A History of Miami's Tropical Island and the Cape Florida Lighthouse, published in 1996.
We generally think of slave-era Southern blacks fleeing north to free states and Canada to gain freedom. But Blank tells of runaway slaves from Alabama, the Carolinas, Georgia, and North and Central Florida making their way down the long peninsula in the early 1800s, eventually crossing the bay to the barrier island of Key Biscayne.
"There they rendezvoused with Bahamian captains, bartering on the beaches to establish the cost of passage on this perilous journey across the Gulf Stream," she wrote.
The blacks, trying to evade the slave-catchers, were often joined in their flight to the Bahamas by black Seminoles (the offspring of unions between the two groups) and Seminoles, who even then, a decade before the Indian Removal Act, talked about being hunted like "wild deer" by the U.S. troops and their allies. Sometimes, the treacherous voyage was undertaken in nothing more than a dugout canoe fitted with sails.
A map in a kiosk, to be erected not far from the park's lighthouse, will trace the passage of those dauntless freedom seekers.
Were it not for the curiosity and determination of Kristopher Smith, of Miami, it might have been left to history books alone to mark this spur of the Underground Railroad.
It was on a family trip to Kingsley Plantation, near Jacksonville, that Smith heard about a national parks program established in 1998 to identify Underground Railroad sites around the country.
When he learned little was being done to identify sites in Florida, Smith sprang into action, eventually founding the Florida Underground Railroad Project.
"I'm not a historian," says Smith, who is employed by the city of Miami as NET Administrator for Overtown. (He too works on neighborhood issues and serves as a liaison with City Hall.)
When he got back to Miami, Smith made some phone calls and was quickly referred to Blank.
"I called Joan and she agreed to meet with me," recalls Smith. "I told her I was doing this research on the Underground Railroad in Florida and the Caribbean. As we talked, it became clear here was an Underground Railroad site right under our noses. She agreed to help flesh out the story ... And we began to work with park staff on developing an application."
At the same time, Smith organized community meetings and workshops throughout the state to gain support and participation in the project. Within two years, the Cape Florida site won designation.
No one knows how many made their leap for freedom from Cape Florida shores. Estimates range from about 100 to 300 or more.
The first eyewitness reports date from 1821, says Blank. Spotted on a single day were 60 Indians, an equal number of runaway slaves and 27 Bahamian ships.
Two years later, says Blank, another book referred to 300 Seminole Indians, black Seminoles and runaways waiting for passage from Cape Florida to the British Bahamas.
"Freedom was in the wind," says Blank. "The British had by that time stopped the trading of slaves. But they hadn't yet done away with slavery officially in the islands. That would be declared later."
The primary destination appears to be the northwestern tip of Andros Island, in the area of Red Bays and Nicolls Town.
One of those who made the crossing in a dugout canoe was a black Seminole named Scipio Bowlegs, whose surname is prevalent among Florida Seminoles and residents of Andros. "It was the most daring venture possible," says Blank.
Anthropologist Rosalyn Howard, professor at the University of Central Florida, lived for a year on Andros researching her book Black Seminoles in the Bahamas. Among those she focused on were descendants of those who left via Cape Florida.
The Red Bays area was chosen, says Howard, because of its sparse population and its shallow, muddy and generally inhospitable setting. Such a place lessened the chances of being recaptured.
The 1821 arrival date is clear, says Howard, because of a letter found in the Bahamian archives "in which a British customs officer `discovered' these people living in the area of Red Bays and took 97 of them to Nassau."
The letter, dated 1828, lists the names of those in custody, and notes, says Howard, that the people had been on the island for seven years, on their own and raising crops.
After about a year, says Howard, the detainees were "returned to the island and allowed to live in freedom."
One reason for rounding up the residents was the fear they may have been dropped off on the island by Spanish privateers who would return later to enslave them. That theory was dispelled when several of the detainees produced certificates of good conduct granted them by the British for their service against the Americans in the War of 1812.
There is still much research yet to be done, says Howard, who is presently engaged in "Looking for Angola," a project that may turn out to be the prequel to the Cape Florida story.
In 1821, near Sarasota, a settlement of primarily free blacks and runaways was overrun and destroyed by the American militia and their Indian allies. Called Angola, it is referred to on old maps as Negro Point. Howard has documents listing the names of some of the inhabitants of Angola. She thinks the Angola survivors may have fled to Cape Florida, and ultimately to Andros.
Construction of the lighthouse in 1825 essentially shut off Cape Florida as an escape route, says Blank. The federal presence forced those fleeing local shores to launch their vessels farther south, from Tavernier in the Keys.
Tavernier is one of several additional Florida locations Smith hopes to get recognized as an Underground Railroad site.
Howard, Blank and Smith will be on hand along with various dignitaries today for the ceremony at Cape Florida.
Smith finds the history inspirational. The stories "resonate with me living in South Florida," he says.
The danger faced, the effort made to resist enslavement, is not only a testament to the freedom seekers' courage, but offers a lesson for today, Smith notes.
"This was a group effort," he notes, undertaken in a cooperative manner by people who did not necessarily look the same or speak the same language. "Yet they bound together to do this. It really sets the groundwork for what we have today, which is a multicultural society. And it says if those folks could overcome those obstacles, we ought to be able to deal with the conditions that we face today together.
"It seems like a model that works."
Monday, February 21, 2005
Marriage Document - 1883
Office of Register of Deeds
| || |
June 6th 18 83
| || |
To any Ordained Minister of any Religious Denomination or any Justice of the Peace of said County:
| || |
Lenard Cahoon having applied to me for a LICENSE for the marriage of Himself of Washington Co. N.C., aged 21 years, color Colored the son of (blank) and (blank) the father now Dead, the mother Living, resident of (blank) And Alice Lindsey of Washington Co. aged 18 years, color Colored, daughter of (blank) and (blank) the father Living, the mother Dead, resident of (blank).
W. H. Stubbs
Register of Deeds
I, L. M. Phelps, a Justice of the Peace united in Matrimony Lenard Cahoon and Alice Lindsey the parties licensed above, on the 7th day of June, 18 83, at John Martins residence in Skinnersville Township, in said County, according to law.
L. M. Phelps
Witnesses present at Marriage:
W. L. Lindsey of Washington Co
Jno. C. Martin of Washington Co
Ben Lindsey of Washington Co
The Jubilate Band, "Jubilation!" In Concert
The Jubilate Band
In concert, Saturday, February 26 at the Overtown Historic Village N.W. 9th St. on the Pedestrian Mall (Next to the Lyric Theater)
Appearing at the
2005 Red Velvet Cake Arts Festival
12:15: Local blues legend, Jubilate's guitarist and instructor, Ike Woods with special guest, Overtown and Jubilate's own, Kamelah Kennedy.
2:00: Jubilation! the Jubilate Band under the direction of Barry Stoffberg, features the African Drummer's Ensemble; Grammy winner, Ingnacio Nunez; South African Guitarist, Philip Carelse; Downbeat Jazz Vocalist, Julie Silvera and Mr. Tenor, Josef Spencer.
"Jubilation!" is a new breed of band whose afro pop music is a vibrant expression of the world's cultures. It is a positive amalgam of funk, soul, African rhythms, and jazz.
A special treat for long time Jubilate fans will be Kamelah's performance. Soon to graduate from High School, she has been a member of the Academy program since she was in middle school and this will be her first concert presentation of original material.
For more information on Jubilate, please visit our web site at, "http://jubilatearts.org/about.htm"
The 2005 Red Cake Festival celebrates the rich cultural and culinary history of the red velvet cake. There will be live performances, exhibits, children's games and of course - RED CAKE!!
For more Festival info: (305) 437-4550
Thursday, February 10, 2005
Budgets are Moral Documents!
Budgets are Moral Documents!
Budgets are moral documents. This administration's proposed budget reflects a set of priorities that stand in clear opposition to biblical values. Paying attention to the poorest among us is arguably the most central biblical imperative-not increased spending on nuclear warheads and tax cuts for the rich.
When considering a document as important as this one, it is imperative that our leaders consider its impact on people living in poverty. Urge your members of Congress to consider this budget's effect on the poor.
Bush Plays the Race Card
NEWS FLASH: "... Blacks Die Earlier!" .... Oh, Really?
Since the Administration's whole talk of privatization has backfired, they've turned to the two tricks available in their hat: race card or fear.
Little Black Lies
By PAUL KRUGMAN
Published: January 28, 2005
Social Security privatization really is like tax cuts, or the Iraq war: the administration keeps on coming up with new rationales, but the plan remains the same. President Bush's claim that we must privatize Social Security to avert an imminent crisis has evidently fallen flat. So now he's playing the race card.
Let's start with the facts. Mr. Bush's argument goes back at least seven years, to a report issued by the Heritage Foundation - a report so badly misleading that the deputy chief actuary (now the chief actuary) of the Social Security Administration wrote a memo pointing out "major errors in the methodology." That's actuary-speak for "damned lies."
Here's why. First, Mr. Bush's remarks on African-Americans perpetuate a crude misunderstanding about what life expectancy means. It's true that the current life expectancy for black males at birth is only 68.8 years - but that doesn't mean that a black man who has worked all his life can expect to die after collecting only a few years' worth of Social Security benefits. Blacks' low life expectancy is largely due to high death rates in childhood and young adulthood. African-American men who make it to age 65 can expect to live, and collect benefits, for an additional 14.6 years - not that far short of the 16.6-year figure for white men.
Second, the formula determining Social Security benefits is progressive: it provides more benefits, as a percentage of earnings, to low-income workers than to high-income workers. Since African-Americans are paid much less, on average, than whites, this works to their advantage.
Finally, Social Security isn't just a retirement program; it's also a disability insurance program. And blacks are much more likely than whites to receive disability benefits.
Put it all together, and the deal African-Americans get from Social Security turns out, according to various calculations, to be either about the same as that for whites or somewhat better. Hispanics, by the way, clearly do better than either.
So the claim that Social Security is unfair to blacks is just false.
Jackson businessman James Wolfe once heard a comedian joke that the age to receive Social Security should be moved back to 29 for blacks since they're not living long enough to the required age of 65 to receive benefits.
But the issue is no laughing matter for Wolfe.
He has served for the last four years on the state's Minority Health Advisory Council. The council's goal is finding solutions to resolving health disparities among minorities.
The disparity issues are something "none of us can afford to give up on," said Wolfe, a Jackson radio station owner, minister and city councilman.
African-Americans, on average, die five years younger than people of any other race in America, Wolfe said, largely because many black people have been unable to afford good health care.
Bush's Social Security pitch is as racist as the day is long. You die earlier so support me? So why do blacks die earlier? Maybe if we spent a trillion on universal health insurance that wouldn't be the case.
When examining the longitudinal life expectancy data for blacks and whites observe how projections indicate that black females in the year 2050 will have reached the life expectancy of white females 50 years earlier, in 1996, and that in 2050 black males will only have reached the life expectancy of their white counterparts 70 years earlier, in 1980.
|Life exp in:||1900||1996||FEM/MALE||BL/WH|
|BL MALE||32.5||66.1||1900= 1.03; |
|MALE 1900=.70 |
|WH MALE||46.6||73.9||1900=1.05; |
|FEM 1900=.69 |
The Inequalities Revealed By Death
As mentioned elsewhere, death is the barometer by which we measure the adequacy of social life, such as when we compare cross-cultural death and life expectancy rates to gauge social progress, compare national homicide rates to infer the stability of social structures, or compare death rates of different social groups to ascertain social inequalities. Some death statistics to ponder:
- The results of a 7-1/2-year study of 3617 Americans (reported in the June 3, 1998 issue of JAMA) found that those whose annual income was below $10,000 had a death rate 3.22 times greater than those making $30,000 or more. Even after controlling for smoking, drinking, exercise, and overeating, the death rate was still 2.77 times higher.
- A 2001 Scottish study found younger heart attack victims from the poorer parts of town were twice as likely to die reroute to hospitals than their affluent counterparts.
- According to the May 2001 report of the CDC, between 1991 and 1997, black women died of pregnancy related complications four times more often than white females (29.6 deaths per 100,000 births vs. 7.3 death for whites and 10.3 for Hispanic women).
- Black infant mortality is 2.2 times that of whites, and blacks lead in 14 of the 16 leading causes of death (W. Michael Byrd & Linda A. Clayton, An American Health Dilemma).
- Blacks are 40% more likely to die of stroke than whites (CDC, Feb. 2003).
- A number of studies show racial minorities are disproportionately exposed to air pollution, hazardous wastes, and pesticides (key concept: ecoracism).
- In 1990, 55% of the men residing in Bangladesh lived past age 65, compared to only 40% of the men in Harlem.
- In the Washington, D.C. area, Latinos are three times more likely than other residents to be struck and killed by a car.
In 1993 there appeared in Times Square an electronic billboard tallying the number of gun-related homicides in the United States, where crude homicide rates are the third highest in the world--4 to 73 times the rate in other industrialized nations, according to researchers at the National Center for Health Statistics. Between 1976 and 1993, more of Americans were murdered in their native land than died on the battlefields of World War II.
According to a study by Child Trends, the infant homicide rate in the U.S. had been increasing over the prior three decades and in 2002 reached the homicide rate of Americans 15 to 19 years of age. Whereas in the 1950s students got under their desks in nuclear war "duck-and-cover" drills nowadays, in the wake of the school shootings around the country, students now use their desks in rehearsing protective strategies against attacks of their classmates.-------------------
"Now we need to focus on giving young people, especially young men in our cities, better options than apathy, or gangs, or jail. Tonight I propose a three-year initiative to help organizations keep young people out of gangs." – President Bush, 2/2/05
The White House has "proposed a 40 percent cut in federal juvenile justice and delinquency prevention funding, which supports anti-gang programs in communities across the country. That's on top of a 44 percent overall reduction in delinquency-fighting and anti-gang funds since 2002." – Fight Crime: Invest in Kids, 6/1/04
Tuesday, February 01, 2005
Six Degrees of Separation
Lindsey- Watts' Six Degrees of Separation
It was Guglielmo Marconi, inventor of the wireless telegraph, who first posited the principle of sixoni was actually talking about telegraph stations, not personal affinity, but the idea caught on with social scientists and even epidemiologists, not to mention playwright John Guare, who made t degrees of separation — that it would take no more than six connections to link any two people in the world.
The concept captures the imagination. Could each of us truly be connected to every other person in the world through a chain of no more than six acquaintances, if only we knew the right people to pick as links?
Six Degrees of Separation is a trivia game based on the premise that everyone on Earth can be connected using six associations or less.
The game is usually applied to movie trivia, where actors are linked to other actors by movies they have in common, and most notably the ubiquitous actor Kevin Bacon is used as a vehicle through which to connect actors.
However, I will use an example closer to home.
We will connect family members linked to the late, great jazz and blues singer, Joe Williams and cousin , Ira L. Everett, Jr.(Chip).
- Joe Williams is connected to Warren and Vincent Lindsey because they were both friends of Williams.
- Williams recorded on their brother in-law, Paul King's Chicago based record label.
- Paul King was married to, Frances (Lindsey) King,sister of Gladys (Lindsey) Everett, Chip's mother.
- Chip hired jazz vocalist and violinist, Nicole Yarling to manage his summer program for talented muscians.
- Nicole Yarling was the protégé of Joe Williams.
Lindsey- Watts Version
Let's try our own experiment! Our goal with this project is to reach targeted family members from around the world by forwarding the message to family members and friends that are closer to that person than you (we) are.
I will post two family members and a family member and celebrity - the next person will try to link those members in six ways or less. The first person to get it will post two more sets of names.
- Claudia King and Kevin Dean
- Julius Everett and Clifton Davis
Sunday, January 30, 2005
Alice Lindsey Fluegge - Family Historian
Alice Lindsey Fluegge
Family HistorianMy name is Alice Lindsey Fluegge, my husband Bob and I are the new, typical American family we are a bi-racial, bi-cultural, blended family, we have five sons and one daughter a combination of natural, step and foster children and they have given us 11 adorable grandchildren.
Twenty years ago my paternal grandfather asked me to find out about the parentage of his mother. He said that she was a member of the “Blackfeet” Indian tribe (later this turned out to be Cherokee, “Blackfeet “was a nickname given to black Cherokees). She was an orphan who had been raised by a white family in Cairo, IL. But he didn't stop there. He gave me the entire story of his family, as he knew it.
Little did I realize what a never-ending and thrill-packed journey on which he was sending me. He died shortly after making that request, as have many other family members who contributed to this work in progress. But the journey keeps them close and I know that they are still helping me find my way. The information I have is from various sources.
Family stories: (As much as I hear people knock family stories, I have gained a lot of verifiable information from things family members have told me.), Census Records, Cemeteries, County Courthouse records, Libraries, State records, Family published genealogies and lately the Internet. Not all is completely verified and is subject to correction. I do what's known as cluster genealogy; I have information on both my family and my husband's family. I am now up to 5,553 people in my family database.
This web page covers just my paternal side of the family. There is a separate page for the maternal side Fuller & Hicks. (under construction, check back later for details) You can contact me with new information, comments or questions at my email address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Both sides of my family are descendants of African slaves and white slave owners. Here I will briefly give you some information about these families, the surnames and geographic locations. Click the hyper-links to see more information. I think you will be as intrigued as I was with their lives and the history that they lived, and that I now get to share through my research.
My paternal side is the Lindsey and Watts Families. The Lindsey family and the Watts families are originally from Maryland, North Carolina and Missouri. My great-great-grandfather Jacob Lindsey was a free black man from Maryland. He married Mary Coffin of Jamestown NC. Mary Coffin is listed as the slave of Dr. Shubal Coffin in the 1850-1860 US census slave schedule.
The family story is that she was the daughter of Shubal and was listed as a slave to protect her from being kidnapped and sold. They had nine children during this time. Their oldest son Junius under the surname Coffin ran away and enlisted in the union army during the Civil War. After the war he came back to Jamestown and he and moved his family to Peru, Indiana where the last of their ten children was born. Jacob’s son, my great grandfather Henry Harrison, married Frances Porter, an orphaned Cherokee Indian.
They traveled the entire state of Illinois. Between them they had eight children, After Henry Harrison deserted his family my great-grandmother Frances had one more child.
My grandfather Harry Lindsey married Edith Watts, from Springfield, Illinois. The family lived for a while in Peru, IN where their first child was born, and then moved to Chicago, IL where their next five were born.
My great-great-grandfather Julius Watts was a runaway slave from Rocky Mount, NC. He walked from Rocky Mount to Cairo, Illinois where he met the family of Matilda Dawson, daughter of slave owner Robert Dawson of Fayette, MO. who had been brought from slavery to Cairo for her protection from Mr. Dawson’s jealous daughter.
When Julius first laid eyes on, fourteen year old, Fanny Patrick it was love at first sight and he swore that someday they would marry. In 1881 when Fanny turned 19 they married in Springfield, Illinois. Their ten children were all born around and in Springfield, Illinois. My grandmother Edith moved to Chicago, IL with her husband Harry Lindsey.
On the family pages you will find, Family Histories, Family Trees, Biographies, Photographs and Official Records. These will be changing on a regular basis as more items are updated.
The surnames associated with the Lindsey family are: ADAMS, ARTHUR, ARTIS, ARTIST, BAILEY, BARRY, BEASLEY, BERGEN, BIRKS, BLANKS, BLOODWORTH, BROWN, BROWN, BUCKMIRE, BURNETT, BUTLER, CADENA, CATHY, COFFIN, COLEMAN, CONNER, DAVIS, DAVISTON, DEAN, DENT, DOW, DUNGEY, ENCISO, EVANS, EVERETT, FLETCHER, FLUEGGE, FORTUNE, FRANCIS, GASKINS, GREENBEY, HARDIN, HARTH, HARTWOOD, HENDERSON, HICKMAN, HICKS, HILL, HONESTY, HOWARD, HUNTT, JACKSON, JOHNSON, JUAREZ, KERSEY, KHALID, KING, LEE, LEWIS, LINDSEY, LOVE, LOWY, LYON, MAGETT, MANSON, MARSHALL, MATHEWS, MCCARTHY, MCDONALD, MCQUARRY, MENDENHALL, MILUN, MITCHELL, MOODY, MOTT, NELLA, NELSON, PARKER, PAYTON, PEREZ, PERRY, PORTER, RAMIREZ, REID, REVELS, ROBERTS, ROBINSON, SMITH, SOTO, STARLLINGS, STEWART, STITH, SWEETEN, TRIGGS, VALENTINE, VALLEJO, VELESCO–EMERY, VOELKER, WARD, WATTS, WEBB, WHEATLEY, WILLIAMS, WILLIS, WILSON, WOODS, WRIGHT, YOUNG, YUNKER.
The surnames associated with the Watts family are:
ADAMS, ARTHUR, BANKS, BARRY, BERGEN, BOWDEN, BRIDGEFORD, BUCKMIRE, CADENA, CATHY, CONNER, CUNNINGHAM, DAVIS, DAVISTON, DEAN, DUNGEY, EDENS, ENCISO, EVANS, EVERETT, FLUEGGE, GAINES, GREENBEY, HALL, HAMILTON, HARTH, HATCHER, HENDERSON, HIBBS, HICKMAN, HICKS, HILL, HONESTY, HUNTT, JACKSON, JOHNSON, JONES, JUAREZ, KHALID, KIDD, KING, KITCHING, LEE, LEWIS, LINDSEY, LOVE, LYON, MAGETT, MARSHALL, MCCANT, MCCORKLE, MCCULLOUGH, MILLER, MITCHELL, MOUZON, MURPHY, NELLA, NELSON, NEVORSKI, PAHLER, PATRICK, PAYTON, PHILANCO, PICKETT, RAMIREZ, REDMOND, RICE, ROBERTS, ROBINSON, SCOTT, SHIRLEY, SIMONS, SIMONS-WYLIE, SMITH, STARLLINGS, STEWART, STOTLER, SWEETEN, TITTS, TRIGGS, VALLEJO, VELESCO–EMERY, VESTAL, VOELKER, WATTS, WEBB, WELLS, WHEATLEY, WILLIAMS, WILLIS, WILSON, WRIGHT, WRIGHT, WRIGHT, YOUNG, YUNKER.
The locations associated mostly with these names are North Carolina, Indiana, Illinois, Ohio, Kentucky and California, but we are now scattered all over the United States. If you see a family name you are connected with on this list, but not on the family tree pages please contact me for further information at my email address: email@example.com.
Thursday, January 27, 2005
The Lindsey and Watts' Family Survey
For the last fifteen years, our family genealogists - cousin, wife, mother and grandmother; the inexhaustible, "Little" Alice Lindsey has been diligently working to extract information on the family from literally thousands of sources to create the "Lindsey- Watts" Family Story.
"In every conceivable manner, the family is a link to our past, bridge to our future.." Haley
Missouri - Watts
I recall a case in point. Some time during the fall of 1857, in company with a man belonging to Dr. Watts, who lived near Brunswick, Missouri, as we were passing his master's farm, one Sunday night, we heard cattle in the corn field destroying green corn. These cattle had pushed down the fence. I said to the man: "Let us drive them out and put up the fence."
His reply was, "It's Massa's corn and Massa's cattle, and I don't care how much they destroy; he won't thank me for driving them out, and I will not do it."
In the fall of 1859 there was a dance given at Col. Ewing's farm, to which several young men and girls were invited and attended; most of them had passes except four girls, who had failed to secure them. The patrols came about twelve o'clock that night and surrounded the house, allowing those having passes to go free, and were preparing to whip the four girls who had none, right there in the presence of their beaux, who were powerless to protect them, when a young fellow, whose name was Lindsay Watts, came up and said, "Lor, masses, it am a great pity to whip dese sweet angels, 'deed 'tis; if you will let dem go, I will take the whippin' for dem all." His proposition was accepted, and the girls turned loose made rapid steps to their homes. The patrols took Lindsay outside of the yard, and stripped him naked, preparatory to giving him four times nine and thirty lashes, but being naked and hard to hold or grab, he escaped and ran home to his master in that condition, followed closely by the patrols. But his master protected him. The girls who barely escaped a lashing reached home safely and thankfully....
THE NEW MAN. TWENTY-NINE YEARS A SLAVE. TWENTY-NINE YEARS A FREE MAN.
RECOLLECTIONS OF H. C. BRUCE. YORK, PA. P. ANSTADT & SONS. 1895.
Descendants of Robert Dawson
Generation No. 1
1. ROBERT1 DAWSON He married (1) UNKNOWN Abt. 1840. He met (2) SALLIE DAWSON 1845. She was born
More About ROBERT DAWSON:
More About UNKNOWN:
Notes for SALLIE DAWSON:
Extract from 1865 State Census
1870 Census: January 1870, Cairo, Alexander Co.,
Soundex: B132 B320
Child of ROBERT DAWSON and UNKNOWN is:
i. MARY AUGUSTINE2
More About MARY AUGUSTINE
Child of ROBERT DAWSON and SALLIE DAWSON is:
2. ii. MATILDA2
Generation No. 2
2. MATILDA2 DAWSON (ROBERT1) was born May 1845 in
Notes for MATILDA DAWSON:
Extract from 1865 State Census
Domestic, 1900 Census, Maid, 1910 Census.
Interment No. 7763
Name of deceased: Matilda Gibbs Wilson
Undertaker: Burpee Disposition of remains: Earth burial
Names and Address of Nearest relatives:
Fannie Watts, Daughter 2005
Henry Watts, Grandson
Robert Watts, Grandson
Belle Wilson, Granddaughter
Edith Lindsey, Granddaughter
Edna Sellars, Granddaughter
More About MATILDA DAWSON:
1870 Census: January 1870, Cairo, Alexander Co., IL.
1910 Census: 1910, Springfield, Sangamon Co., IL, Capitol Twp.
Cause of Death: Carcinoma of the Stomach
Notes for HENRY PATRICK:
Extract from 1865 State Census
Notes for HENRY G. WILSON:
Friends wishing to view the remains may do so between the hours of and tomorrow.
Interment will be in
More About HENRY G. WILSON:
Obituary: October 1909, The
Marriage Notes for MATILDA DAWSON and HENRY WILSON:
State of Illinois Sangamon county Volume #005 Page # 0213 - Record # 35
License #8068, Date of license:
Full name of Groom: Henry G. Wilson / Place of residence:
/Age next birthday: 27 / Race or color: African / Place of birth:
name: Sarah J. Gibs / No. of Groom's marriage: First
Full name of Bride: Matilda Patrick / Maiden name if widow: Matilda Robert / Place of residence:
IL/Age next birthday: 37 / Race or color: African / Place of birth:
name: Dossen Robert / No. of bride's marriage: Second
Where and when married: at Oscar Boarder Residence
Witnesses: John Wilson and James Harbiliard.
Children of MATILDA DAWSON and HENRY PATRICK are:
i. LOUISA3 PATRICK, b. 1861, Missouri; d. 1929-11-01 Chicago, Illinois; m. HENRY MCCULLOUGH, April 21, 1880,
Notes for LOUISA PATRICK:
More About LOUISA PATRICK:
1870 Census: January 1870, Cairo, Alexander Co.,
Notes for HENRY MCCULLOUGH:
IL State Death Records: MC CULLOUGH HENRY M/N UNK 2840380 1922-05-08
Marriage Notes for LOUISA PATRICK and HENRY MCCULLOUGH:
GROOM BRIDE CNTY DATE VOL/PAGE LIC
MCCULLOUGH, HENRY PATRICK, LOUISA
8768 Mc McCullough, Henry Apr 21 1880Patrick, Louisa
Witness-Henry G. Wilson
ii. JULIA PATRICK, b. 1862,
3. iii. FANNIE PATRICK, b.
Generation No. 3
3. FANNIE3 PATRICK (MATILDA2 DAWSON, ROBERT1) was born
*Please feel free to add anecdotes or information on family members from or living in Missouri when you comment.
Timeline of Missouri's African American History
|1821||Missouri became the 24th state of the United States of America (August 10).|
|1821||The American Colonization Society founded the colony of Liberia in western Africa for freed slaves.|
|1823||The Missouri General Assembly authorized each county to establish slave patrols to guard against slave plots and insurrections.|
|1824||The Missouri General Assembly retained territorial legislation enabling persons held in slavery illegally to sue for their freedom (December 30).|
|1824||In the slave freedom suit Winny v. Whitesides, the Missouri Supreme Court established the judicial precedent of "once free, always free" to determine the outcome of such freedom suits.|
|1827||In Merry v. Tiffin & Menard, the Missouri Supreme Court held that a slave was emancipated by residence in any territory where slavery was prohibited by the Northwest Ordinance of 1787.|
|1829||In Trammel v. Adams, the Missouri Supreme Court determined that residence in Illinois entitled a slave to freedom even if s/he came to Missouri afterward.|
|1834||William Wells Brown escaped slavery in St. Louis, later becoming an abolitionist and America's first African American novelist.|
|1835||All free blacks and mulattoes, aged seven to twenty-one, were legislatively ordered by Missouri's General Assembly to be bound as apprentices or servants.|
|1835||To remain in Missouri, all free blacks were required to obtain a "free-license" from the county court.|
|1834||In the Missouri Supreme Court, the case of Margurite v. Pierre Chouteau, Sr., officially ended Indian slavery in Missouri.|
|1836||The descendants of Marie Jean Scypion, an Afro-Indian slave in colonial Missouri, were awarded freedom by the Jefferson County Circuit Court based on their Native American ancestry following legal battles that lasted over three decades. The Missouri Supreme Court and the United States Supreme Court upheld the decision in 1838.|
|1836||In Rachel v. Walker, the Missouri Supreme Court held that if an officer of the United States Army takes a slave to a territory where slavery is prohibited, he forfeits his property.|
|1836||After he fatally stabbed a deputy sheriff, Francis McIntosh was brutally lynched in St. Louis, earning the city a reputation for lawlessness and barbaric behavior (April 28).|
|1837||Elijah Lovejoy, abolitionist clergyman and St. Louis newspaper editor, died defending his press from a mob siege in Alton, Illinois (November 7).|
|1837||The Missouri Supreme Court, in Jennings v. Kavanaugh, ruled that an owner was not liable for the criminal acts of his slave property.|| |
|1839||Tom Bass was born a slave in Boone County; later became nationally-known equestrian (January 5).|
|1839||James Milton Turner was born a slave in St. Louis County (August 22). He became Missouri's most prominent African American leader after the Civil War, promoting black education. He also served as U.S. Minister to Liberia.|
|1846||The constitutionality of the "free-license" law was upheld.|
|1846||Dred and Harriet Scott initiated a suit for freedom in the St. Louis Circuit Court. Under Missouri statutes, the suit was allowed based on previous residence in a free territory (Wisconsin) before return to the slave state of Missouri (April 6).
|1847||The Missouri legislature passed a law prohibiting the education of blacks, free or slave.|
|1847||Hiram Young purchased his freedom and settled in western Missouri. His Independence-based business, making yokes and wagons for westward expansion, was one of the largest in Jackson County by 1860.|
|1854||Augustus Tolton, born a slave in Ralls County, Missouri, became the first recognized African American Catholic priest in the United States (April 1).|
|1854||President Franklin Pierce signed the Kansas-Nebraska Act, allowing "popular sovereignty" to determine whether a territory would be a slave or free state. This act set the stage for the violent Kansas-Missouri border wars where Missouri "Border Ruffians" and Kansas "Jayhawkers" transformed a frontier quarrel over slavery's borders into a national issue (May 30)|
|1855||Elizabeth Keckley purchased her freedom in St. Louis; she was later employed by First Lady Mary Todd Lincoln (November 15).|
|1855||Celia, a Callaway County slave, was executed for the murder of her sexually abusive owner, Robert Newsom (December 23).|
|1857||U.S. Chief Justice Roger B. Taney handed down the Dred Scott decision (March 6). The case, which originated in St. Louis, intensified the sectional controversy regarding the expansion of slavery. Taney concluded that Scott lacked standing in court because he lacked U.S. citizenship. In Taney's opinion, slaves as well as free blacks, would never be able to become U.S. citizens; hence, Scott had no standing to sue in a court of law. Taney also took the opportunity to argue that each state had the right to determine the status of slaves, and that Congress had exceeded its powers in forbidding slavery in certain areas of the Louisiana Purchase; therefore, the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional.|
|1858||The Colored Aristocracy of St. Louis, published by Cyprian Clamorgan, profiled St. Louis free African American society.|